What can you do with FlexBox?

FlexBox is a flexible box layout model for the web. This model gives you a way to automatically rearrange responsive elements. They can adjust in size either increasing or decreasing depending on the device size. FlexBox can be a great addition to your CSS toolbox. It helps you to write adjustable and adaptive CSS.

What can you do with flexbox
Image by Magic Creative from Pixabay

How do I get started?

You can start by reading guides on how to use FlexBox. The Mozilla Developer Network has a guide on the Basic Concepts of Flexbox. Or try CSS-Tricks’ A guide to FlexBox.

If you need to fix a problem right away, you can use Solved By Flexbox to find a solution to common problems.

3 different ways to use it in your projects

1. Centering items on a page

Without FlexBox, it can be challenging to center items like text or images on a page. Sometimes, you have to resort to hacks to get it to look the way you want. FlexBox makes it so much easier. Use these tips to center items either horizontally or vertically.

2. Photogallery

You want to create a photo gallery that is responsive. Use this photo gallery to make one that looks like Flickr or Google Photos.

3. Responsive Tables

Tables are not responsive. You can make them be by using a little bit of FlexBox without having to redesign them.

Need more?

Flexbox Patterns has solutions to problems that you can use. It demonstrates the solution and shows you how to create the flexible box layout yourself.

Getting Started with CSS Variables

What are CSS Variables?

Most programming languages allow you to use variables. Variables are used to store information and manipulated by the program. In CSS, you previously need a preprocessor like SASS or LESS to use variables. CSS Variables are custom properties that you define with specific values and reuse throughout your CSS document.

Getting Started with CSS Variables
Photo by Pexels from Pixabay

In CSS as well as programming languages, you can declare your variables either globally or locally. A global variable is a custom property that is available to your entire HTML document. To declare a global custom property, you use the :root pseudo-class.

For example, you want to define your theme colors. You can use the :root pseudo-class to do that.


:root {
    --main-color: blue;
    --main-text-color: aqua;
}

You can also declare a variable locally. By declaring a custom property locally, you limit the scope or impact that the variable can have.


.primary-background-color {
    --background-color: teal;
}

When you create a CSS Variable, you can overwrite the value. By taking advantage of cascade, you can create a new style that changes the default value of a global declare variable.


.text-color {
    --main-text-color: orange;
}

Var()

Preprocessors allow you to use a variable by referencing its name. You use the Var() function when inserting the value of a custom property.


.featured-content-box {
    background-color: var(--main-color)
}

Calc()

Sometimes you need to do a little math to get your styles to work they way you want them to. Calc() is a native CSS way to do simple math calculations. With it, you can do addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. CSS Tricks talks about use cases for Calc().

For example, you may want to change the width of a style.


.box {
    width: calc(100% - 80px);
}

Why use?

CSS Variables can be overwritten, cascade down and used in JavaScript. If you don’t want to use a preprocessor like SASS or LESS, you can use custom variables to make managing your styles a lot simpler.

In Web Dev Simplified’s CSS Variables Tutorial, he gives you a quick introduction on how to use them. You learn what they are, how to write them and use them with JavaScript.

Summary

At first, CSS Variables sounds complicated. They can help you to make your CSS easier to maintain. Variables are a lot easier to use than hex or hsl codes.

How do you fix problems in print CSS?

A print stylesheet allows you to print a webpage. Testing a print stylesheet can be challenging. You create print styles to manage how the page prints, but it still doesn’t look right. What do you do when you need to fix or find a problem that occurs when the page is printed?

How Do You Fix Problems In Print CSS
Photo by Fernando Arcos from Pexels

You have two options use the Print Preview or the browser’s developer tools.

Print Preview lets you see how your web page looks on the printed page. You can see which elements to hide like navigation bars, footers or certain images. It also helps you to identify simple problems. Problems like large text, too much space between elements and extra styling that may use too much ink.

What do you do when you can’t find the source of a problem? Use your browser. Chrome, FireFox and Safari allow you to display print styles directly in your browser. This option is great for seeing how your design looks without print the page out. You can use the inspector to diagnose issues with your CSS. It can help you identify design issues that need a print style either created or modified.

For example, I had an app that printed a receipt. It printed on two pages instead of one. First, I used the Print Preview to find out what elements to hide when printed. After that, I saw that it was still printing on two pages. I couldn’t see what was causing the issue.

I changed the Developer Tools to show the print CSS. When I used this option to view the receipt with the print styles, I found the source of the problem. The problem was in the footer. I started to look at the styles for it. The footer had a height of 10.75 ems. I experimented by turning off the height. It changed from printing on one page instead of two. To fix this issue, I added a new print style for the footer and made the height auto. When I looked in print preview, it printed an one page.

10 Practical Project Management Tips

We all manage projects. Whether we are working on a team or independently, we have our part that needs to get done. Chris Ford, Project Manager at Reaktiv Studios shared her practical project management tips at WordCamp US in November 2019.

10 Practical Project Management Tips
Photo by Shopify Partners from Burst

1. Projects are about people

Projects are about working and collaborating with people to achieve a goal or build something. It’s not about the technology. People are trying to do the best they can with the tools they have.

2. Work with people you like.

People don’t like to work with jerks. You don’t always get to choose who you work with. When you do, choose to work with people you like. Projects work out better when you work with people you like.

3. There is no such thing as a perfect project.

Something always happens. The client adds new features. Team members quit. Delays and other problems occur. When that happens, be flexible. Stay calm and do the best you can.

4. Measure what matters to you.

You can’t measure what matters to you if you don’t track it. Do you know how much time you spend on a task? Are you using a project management tool to keep track of team’s progress? There are plenty of tools like Harvest to help you collect and analyze your progress.

5. You will be wrong. It will suck.

You’ll make mistakes. Everyone does. Chris likes to say “The wrong mistake is the one you make more than twice.” Accept this and be ok with it.

6. Bad news doesn’t age well.

When you’re wrong, don’t hide it. It is better to tell people bad news right away than delay it.

7. Celebrate the small victories.

When you have a success no matter how small, celebrate it with your team.

8. Create a culture of helping.

Be helpful. Share knowledge and encourage helping others.

9. Take care of yourself.

Remember to take care of your team and especially yourself. Schedule time for breaks and whatever else your or your team needs.

10. Everyone is a project manager.

Remember, we all manage our own projects.

Completing a Pricing Plan Coding Challenge

I found Frontend Mentor where you can improve your front-end coding skills by building real projects. You can pick a challenge that appeals to you. Then, download the design documents, images and other assets that you need.

Pricing Plan Coding Challenge

Pricing Component With Toggle

The challenge I chose was the pricing component with toggle. It has three options: Basic, Professional and Master. You have to use a toggle switch to show the prices for Annually or Monthly.

How I Built It

I built it using HTML, Bootstrap and JavaScript. With Bootstrap, I had to override some of its styles to get rid of the column margin and create custom styles for the button.

I wrote JavaScript that watches for when the toggle is selected. When you open the page, it defaults to monthly pricing. If you select Annually, you see the Annual prices. When you select Monthly, it switches back to Monthly prices.

What I Learned

The style guide defined colors in HSL and included a linear gradient. The linear-gradient is a CSS function that allows you to create a transition between two or more colors along a straight line. You can choose the direction or angle of the transition. For two of the buttons and toggle, the gradient moves from left to right. The professional plan card moves from top to bottom.

I used two structural pseudo-classes in CSS to create the design. The :first-of-type and :last-of-type selectors allow you to target the first and last occurrence of an element in a container.

Bootstrap has a toggle switch available. It was not customizable with CSS. You have to compile custom Bootstrap in order to change how it looks. I found CSS toggle solution that works like the design. I modified it to work with my CSS.

Frontend Mentor asks developers to post their solutions to their site. If you get stuck on a project, you can look at their solution to see how they approached it.

You can see my version of the pricing plan with toggle.